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the macroeconomic factors influencing liquidity.

Economic and political conditions in the country. Stability of general political and economic conditions in the country has direct influence on stability of a banking system as a whole and a bank of commerce as its link in particular. In many respects it defines trust degree to banks from the population, and also degree "politizirovannosti" a banking system. Any display of instability in the given spheres leads to a sharp aggravation of a problem of liquidity of banks of commerce. Efficiency of state regulation and the control. Banks of commerce test on themselves all spectrum of influences of the state measures of monetary - credit regulation. It is shown in an establishment of rules of law, reguli-rujushchih bank activity as a whole, and also in an establishment of obligatory specifications for performance and sanctions for their infringement. Central banks of the countries with market economy regulate solvency of banks of commerce by means of an establishment of restrictions on their activity. Direct influence on liquidity and solvency render, in particular, following moments: restriktsionnaja a policy of the Central Bank (rate increase of refinancing by the Central Bank, change of norms of obligatory reservation, the minimum size of a shareholder's interest, have an establishment of obligatory economic specifications direct influence on structure and efficiency of active and passive operations of banks); The fiscal policy of the state (establishments of taxes, the indirect and which direct payer is the bank, affects its liquidity and pla-tezhesposobnost); Central Bank operations in the open market with the state securities and a foreign currency essentially influence interest rates, exchange rates, etc. Besides, the readiness and effectiveness of spent economic policy, validity of the established specifications and efficiency have great value Influence measures on banks-infringers. State regulation and the control should stimulate banks to maintenance of sufficient level of liquidity as one of primary factors in poderzhanii stability as banking system, and all economy. Development and efficiency of segments of the financial market. This factor causes character of redistribution of temporarily free money resources between participants of the financial market and, in particular, between banks. So, the high level of development of the market gives the chance to banks of fast call for funds with a view of liquidity maintenance, and the stable market tone provides possibility of fast realisation of securities if necessary. The given factor has appreciable influence on degree of liquidity of assets as a necessary condition of liquidity of assets is the developed market for their realisation. Possibility of attraction of support from the state. It is shown through a spent monetary and credit policy of the government and the Central Bank, for example, in possibility of reception of government credits from Central Bank resources. At the development present stage macroeconomic factors define the general instability of a banking system of Russia, having strong negative influence on financial stability of banks of commerce, and, in particular, on their liquidity. Let's pass now to consideration of the factors operating at microlevel, i.e. At level of the bank (fig. 8.4 see).

a Fig. 8.4. The Microbusiness factors influencing liquidity of bank.

a Fig. 8.4. The Microbusiness factors influencing liquidity of bank.

Sufficiency of a shareholder's interest of bank. The considerable size of a capital base of bank positively affects level of its liquidity, as a shareholder's interest: carries out a role of the shock-absorber in case of occurrence of the unforeseen circumstances, able to entail withdrawal of means, and, as consequence, to cause liquidity or solvency crisis. The given indicator has huge value for normal functioning of bank, therefore its is minimum admissible size is regulated legislatively (the Instruction of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, № 1, Basel agreements in the western countries). Quality and stability of resource base of bank. As is known, the resource base is the defining factor for volume and degree of development of active operations of bank, and, hence, its stability influences a financial soundness and liquidity of bank. It is necessary for bank staff to carry out the constant control over these indicators, to carry out the structural analysis of passives on purpose under-derzhanija optimum values for the means involved on an urgent basis as they help bank to support equation between assets and liabilities on terms and the sums so, and liquidity of bank. Degree of dependence on external sources of loan. The such dependence is more strongly expressed at bank, the there can be problems in case of occurrence even time insolvency more seriously. So, the crisis of the interbanking market which has developed in August, 1995, has shown degree of instability of bank structures at occurrence of crisis situations when even small on volumes non-returns of means have put some banks on a survival side. Force of influence of the given factor directly depends on a stock of financial durability of bank, and also from the policy spent by bank. Equation of assets and liabilities on the sums and terms.
The given factor has basic value in the course of maintenance of liquidity of bank in particular and its financial soundness as a whole. Such equation practically excludes possibility of occurrence of crisis of liquidity and solvency in bank as liabilities of bank will be provided by available resources, and the coordination of assets and liabilities on terms will provide timely settlement of commitment without unprofitable realisation of assets. The above this coordination, the sbalansirovannee the policy spent by bank, above its liquidity, ustojchivee financial circumstances. Riskiness of assets of bank means probability of potential losses at realisation of assets or risk of a non-return of the means enclosed by bank. Riskiness of assets depends on many factors of an internal and external order, such, as: bank strategy at placing of means, structure and quality of its advances portfolio, activity of investment in securities, quality of the spent financial analysis, a condition of real sector of economy, public finances, etc. So, a credit risk as one of components of risk of active operations, represents in the conditions of non-payments and the general economic crisis the extremely serious problem for the Russian banks in this connection the special attention should be given to credit rating and a financial position of borrowers. As a whole the above the risk of active operations of bank, the is more probability of occurrence of losses at transformation of assets in money resources, and it, in turn, will negatively affect and its liquidity. Profitableness of assets of bank. This factor renders raznonapravlennoe influence on liquidity. On the one hand, than more share of working assets in the bank balance sheet and the above their efficiency, profitableness, the ustojchivee financial consisting - nie bank. On the other hand, profitableness growth is almost always interfaced to risk increase in this connection requirements to liquidity raise. 8. Structure and asset diversification. In managerial process by liquidity it is necessary to give special attention to structure of assets. For example, for realisation it is settlement-cash services clients, return of means from on-demand accounts it is necessary for bank to have a certain stock vysokolikvidnyh assets. Considering their low or zero profitableness, the bank should support a share of these assets on mi-nimalno possible level, sufficient, however, to remain solvent and liquid. Asset diversification, i.e. Their placing in various directions, has positive influence on liquidity level as in this case about risk of assets decreases. However it is impossible to suppose and excessive diversifikatsii - it can lead to uncontrollability of a portfolio of assets, growth of the organizational costs connected with management by it, and, as consequence, to losses. At asset diversification it is necessary to consider influence of such factor, as a financial soundness of bank customers and banks-partners for it substantially influences stability of a financial position of bank, prospects of its development, and, thereby, on its reliability and liquidity. To avoid the losses caused, for example, by a non-return of credits or necessity to bear responsibility under guarantee certificates for insolvent clients, it is necessary for bank to trace changes in clientele financial circumstances, to study requirements and a financial position of potential clients, and also to aspire to reception of as much as possible authentic and all-round information on the partners. It is necessary to notice, however, that liquidity of bank is influenced also by other factors, for example, volume, structure and performance terms zabalansovyh operations. At an estimation of liquidity on the basis of balance data the analysis of this factor allows to consider influence zabalansovyh operations and by that with bolshej reliability to define an actual condition of bank. However, thus analytical conclusions have character of the forecast as responsibility under the liabilities of bank reflected behind balance, not always can come. Nevertheless such analysis has great value, and underestimation of corresponding obligations can lead to decrease in liquidity or even to nelikvidnosti bank. The similar situation can be generated, for example, excessive activity of bank in delivery of guarantees. So, we have considered the factors influencing liquidity of bank. However not only they define liquidity of bank. Liquidity of a bank of commerce is based on constant maintenance by means of operational management of objectively necessary parity between three components: a shareholder's interest of bank and borrowed funds, on the one hand, and the placed means - with another. Realisation of this purpose assumes the analysis, the control and bank asset-liability management. We will pass to consideration of a following analysis stage of face-visibility.
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the macroeconomic factors influencing liquidity.

  1. a stage. The analysis of the factors influencing liquidity
    On liquidity and capacity of a bank to meet its liabilities, as well as on its activity as a whole, the large quantity of factors raznonapravlennogo actions influences. Therefore at revealing of developing negative tendencies in the field of liquidity it is necessary for financial analysts of bank to reveal the major factors which have caused these tendencies, to analyse their influence and to
  2. an estimation of the factors influencing strategy of bank
    For an estimation of the factors influencing strategy of bank, it is necessary to reveal such factors and to analyse their effect. On fig. 8 the sequence in which the bank environment is studied is shown. {foto7} a Fig. 8. Algorithm of research of an environment of bank In the course of the analysis of an environment of bank ry-night possibilities and the risks which are taking place under
  3. 1.1. The factors influencing organizational behaviour
    Macroeconomic factors Economic situation in the country, region Organisation geographical position Standard of living in region The external economic contacts The organisation status in the market Expectations of associates Microbusiness factors Profile and kind of activity of the organisation Level of a financial condition of the person The person of the first chief (holder) Real situation
  4. 2.1. The factors influencing property value
    It is possible to allocate four factors influencing cost it is
  5. Questions for repetition
    What basic stages are included by process of a substantiation of the price for production of the transnational company? Name the major factors influencing a resistance barrier. Than plurality of the prices in the conditions of economic is caused? The world price should answer what requests? What questions should be decided at development of a price policy of the transnational company? Name the
  6. Section III. MACROECONOMIC
    We open new big section of the economic theory, named "Macroeconomic". The question First of all arises: how and when the concept "macroeconomic" was born? What specific relations peculiar to national economy of each country, it
  7. 4. The Cause and effect diagramme
    Example of the conditional diagramme, where: 1 - factors (reasons); 2 - big "bone"; 3 - small "bone"; 4 - average "bone"; 5 - "ridge"; 6 - the characteristic (result). Example of the cause and effect diagramme of the factors influencing quality of production. Quality Quality {foto29} a Fig. 4.15. Examples of the cause and effect diagramme The Cause and effect diagramme is used, when it is
  8. Comments to 1.1
    On OP the set of factors influences: Macroeconomic - environment
  9. 3.3. The factors influencing cost of the real estate
    the Factors influencing cost of the real estate. Table 3.2 Group the Characteristic of factors Factors Physical Characteristics of a site - a climate, resources, topography, grunty, soil; In relation to a business centre, places of the appendix of work, inhabited territories, motor transport, coast, green files etc. Characteristics ground learning-stka to the sizes, the form, the area,
  10. Regressionnyj the analysis
    assumes an establishment of linear dependence between number of staff and factors influencing it. Settles up under the formula: And + bx, Where Tp - labour input of works; and - a constant; - regress factor; h - the influencing
  11. 6.1 THE FUNDAMENTAL ANALYSIS.
    Rather complete knowledge of a condition and tendencies of development of a world currency system, of the nature of the macroeconomic indicators influencing dynamics of rates of exchange are necessary for successful operations in the currency market. The exchange rate relationship, in the end, is defined by fundamental factors key statistics of a condition of national economies. The modern
  12. 2.2.4. A balance method
    the Modern market system acts by means of close vzaimoobuslovlennyh communications between all sectors of economy and the spheres of the market demanding maintenance of balance in macroeconomic scale. The problem of macroeconomic balance is a problem of the choice arranging all in company at which ability of use of the limited resources, such as the earth, work, the capital, for creation of the
  13. the Theme 3. The marketing environment and market segmentation.
    firm Marketing ispygavaet which is necessary for considering influence of a complex of forces and factors, action: it is necessary to adapt for some, and others - to use as regulation instruments some market processes. Marketing environment - set of forces and the factors influencing marketing activity of firm and its results. Силы1 And factors:, influencing marketing of concrete firm, it is
  14. Principles of the organisation of the credit. The factors influencing for percent of the credit
    Principles of the organisation of the credit: Reflexivity Promptness platnost Security differentsirovannost (different approaches to different borrowers) The factors influencing on % of the credit: The rate of refunding of the Central Bank The average rate under interbank credits Demand for advances Class of risk Rate of inflation Term Others Credit role in monetary circulation sphere, in
  15. Risk factors
    — properties of object and the external factors influencing probability of approach and-or probable size of a
  16. Cost of the right of lease
    – a single payment for the right of use and the order property under the lease arrangement. Change of cost of the real estate depends on a number of factors. They can be divided on objective and subjective. Objective factors characterise situations typical for the market and motives of behaviour of participants in the deal. Objective factors are basically economic, they are divided on
  17. 3. The factors forming the environment of the international business
    In the conditions of modern global economy there is a set of the factors influencing formation of the environment of the international business (fig. 1.1 see). Controllable factors: Manufacture factors; Production volumes; Marketing; Finance; The personnel. Uncontrollable factors: Macroeconomic indicators (GNP, GNP per capita, an unit cost, a share of consumer spendings on the basic consumer
  18. THE THEME 15. MACROECONOMIC INSTABILITY: UNEMPLOYMENT AND INFLATION
    In the previous theme we have established, that for the developed market economy short-term, intermediate term and long-term economic fluctuations are characteristic. In this connection there is a question: whether it is possible to reach complete use of production factors at such fluctuations? Unconditionally, one. During economic fluctuations there is a non-uniformity in application of factors
  19. the Method of factors of efficiency/inefficiency.
    usually the factors influencing efficiency, are presented visually (in tabular form). At use of the given method inefficiency factors divide into three groups: The factors, which decision does not depend on establishment; The factors, which decision depends on establishment; The factors, which decision is on border (and another's). The given method is applied once a year or two. It can
  20. Ecological factors
    - any element of environment influencing a live organism, and also on character of their relations with each other. Distinguish bioticheskie, abioticheskie and anthropogenous
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