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Circular model of communications.

in this model reaction kommunikanta on the message of a source in the form of a feedback is reflected. The feedback does communications by bilateral process (dialogue), allowing each of the parties
To correct the actions and the purposes. The circular (cyclic) model of communications has been offered in U.Shramma and C.Osguda's works. SHramm believed, that would be too big error to consider communications as linear process which has a beginning and there is an end. Actually it is process infinite; to correct discrepancy of linear models, it is necessary to underline cyclic character of communications, when its participants (a source and the addressee) periodically vary roles. Thus, communications are treated as bilateral process of communication when both the sender, and the addressee of the information equally co-operate with each other, communicating (signals).
Authors of model turned special attention on a problem of interpretation of the message.
If linear models (for example, Shennona-Uivera) first of all have been aimed at research of accuracy of the transferred signals reached by minimisation of technical noise in the channel in circular model the basic accent is transferred on message interpretation. As each participant of communications approaches to decoding of sense of the transferred message with the criteria in communication process there is «a semantic noise». To minimise its consequences and to make communications more effective (productive) it is possible only by means of the "feedback" mechanism.
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Circular model of communications.

  1. Two-channel model of speech communications.
    meaning the difficult verbally-nonverbal nature of communications and a number of basic differences of nonverbal communications from actually Speech, domestic psychologist B.P.frost has offered original model which represents communications as the two-channel process consisting from verbal, actually speech linguistic and nonverbal extralinguistic channels. Feature of the given model consists in
  2. the Model of two-step communications
    has been developed by P.Lazarsfsldom and B.Berelsonom at research of mass communications. They have paid attention to one rather curious law: influence of the information transferred to the population through mass-media, does not weaken after a while, and, on the contrary, amplifies. The information delivered by the press, radio and TV have shown researches, that, is acquired by a mass audience
  3. 1.4. Model of planning and working out of strategy of marketing communications
    Strategy of marketing communications is harmoniously entered in structure of management of the company and is a key element of a marketing strategy. Hierarchy strategiche - skogo planning at the enterprise looks as follows: on the first place — the general company strategy, from it follows a marketing strategy from which strategy marketing communications, in turn, follows. Before to speak
  4. MODEL OF SENSUAL COMMUNICATIONS
    Education of parents on Thomas Gordona's model has extended in many countries of the world. Philosophical development of model Basis of views of T.Gordona concerning family education with-stavljaet the theory of person K.Rodzhersa which has appeared as a result of judgement of its clinical practice. But if to speak even more precisely, the model of family education developed Gordonom, leaves
  5. Situational model of management of communications.
    actually the question on an organisation openness to external influence concerns not communications as that, and to character of the organisation. Hence, the approach choice to management of communications - a problem is not so much (or at least, not only) the manager on communications, how many the general management. For choice the approach it is possible to judge degree of awareness of the
  6. text Preparation advertising-circular
    is carried out with allowance for following basic recommendations. The text whenever possible should be short, not tyre the addressee. An ideal variant of volume — one page (if, of course, it Does not put a damage to completeness of the maintenance). Growth of volume of the letter can be excluded use of a various sort of appendices. The form and the maintenance of the item of mail is necessary
  7. FROM THE CIRCULAR LETTER OF THE PRESIDENT GERMAN COLONIAL COMPANY TO OFFICERS OF BOARD AND BRANCHES OF COMPANY FROM MAY, 6TH, 1933
    With a victory of national revolution and made during its pre-formation of a political life in Germany has come, as it seems to me, time of radical reform of German colonial company. Necessity of a rejuvenation and activization of German colonial company admitted for a long time already its bodies and members. Present time requires, that the German colonial company has unconditionally granted
  8. Z.Formirovanie systems of internal communications (ways and dialogue forms) and communications
    means the decision resulted below the integrated problems: Working out of internal communications on a vertical and horizontals; Creation of system of games (traditions, customs, rituals, ceremonies, etc.); Cultural adaptation of the personnel. Culture, in addition, this dialogue. The organizational culture should not be torn off from members of the organisation, it should be general, valid,
  9. CHAPTER 4. COMMUNICATIONS KINDS VERBAL COMMUNICATIONS
    CHAPTER 4. COMMUNICATIONS KINDS VERBAL
  10. 4.9. Triumph of model of balance and positivistic theoretical model
    Up to 1930th years economists used balance model as some kind of the auxiliary intellectual tool intended, a method by contradiction, for development of the theory of real market processes. But in 30th years the majority of economists have ceased to consider balance model as the auxiliary tool and have gradually started to perceive it as unique significant object of researches. During this period
  11. In what cases it is expedient to use Wilson's model And what restrictions this model has?
    Model EOQ gives the important practical reference points for account of an optimum consignment of the order. At the same time it is true only under certain conditions, namely: it is supposed, that the production volume is defined precisely, sales are uniform, delivery of stocks goes without delay. Therefore practical application of model is possible only with restrictions, it helps to schedule
  12. 8.2. OLD KEJNSIANSKY MODEL AND CLASSICAL MODEL: THREE MARKETS CONSIDERED BUT SEPARATENESS
    As kejnsianskuju, and the classical model can be considered as the system consisting of interconnected submodels which in turn reflect behaviour of three markets-markets of a labour, market of financial assets (money and bonds) and the market juvarov (but і rebsh elskih and investment). Actually neither Keynes, nor authors of a classical direction did not represent the models in such kind, but
  13. § 2C. AUTOREGRESS MODEL AND SLIDING AVERAGE ARMA (P, Q) AND INTEGRATED MODEL ARIMA (P, D, Q)
    1. THESE MODELS PERSONIFY LINES OF BOTH CONSIDERED ABOVE MODELS MA (Q) AND AR (P), GIVING THERE ARE ENOUGH AMPLE OPPORTUNITIES FOR ON-STRUCTURE THE MODELS "WELL EXPLAINING THE LIKELIHOOD NATURE OF STATISTICAL"RAW MATERIALS" AS WELL AS ABOVE, IT IS SUPPOSED SET (P,), WHERE NOW IT IS CONVENIENT TO CONSIDER THE FILTERED LIKELIHOOD SPACE Z'P = ST (...? _X? O? L, • • •?) WITH "BELYMSHUMOM" (IN
  14. Model of the person of the journalist: professional, socially-civil, moral, psychological and socially-demographic characteristics. Updating of the general model for different specialisations (the reporter, an analyst, rassledovatel, the publicist, the leader-moderator, etc.).
    Everything about what we spoke till now, understanding features of a journalistic trade in connection with its special position in information-spiritual processes, universality and a variety, high level of social responsibility, creative character, a paradoxicality and dramatic nature, is projected on the person of the journalist, dictates certain set of properties and characteristics which
  15. § 2С. MODEL OF PRICING OF FINANCIAL ASSETS (SARM - CAPITAL ASSET PRICING MODEL)
    1. THE SREDNE-DISPERSIVE ANALYSIS ("MEAN-VARIANCE ANALYSIS") FOR THE ACCOUNTS OF THE OPTIMUM PORTFOLIO REQUIRES KNOWLEDGE ER (AND \) AND COV (R (AG), P (AJ)) AND DOES NOT GIVE THE EXPLANATION OF THE ORIGIN OF THESE SIGNIFICANCES. (IN THE REAL TO PRACTICE THESE SIZES ARE EVALUATED ON LAST GIVEN BY USUAL STATISTICAL AVERAGES AND KOVARIAPIJAMI.) THEORY SARM (CENTURY SHARP (W.F. SHARPE, [433]), J.
  16. Management of communications or management of information communications.
    for the control of a condition of a course of works of the project, its environment and the forecast of results it is necessary to have return information communication. Management of information communications supplies duly reaction to external and internal revolting
  17. communications
    the Term "communications" has appeared in the scientific literature in the beginning of the XX-th century and has three values: 1) a communication facility of any objects material and an inner world; 2) dialogue, an information transfer from the person to the person (interpersonal communications); 3) dialogue and information interchange in a society (social communications). There are various
  18. the Account of intercentral communications.
    for the account in linear model of transmission lines difficult real network EES was replaced with its simplified equivalent. Network submission of territorial communications EES when all consumers and generating installations of certain territorial area are concentrated in conditional knot is standard. Intercentral Communications are modelled with the help of the count which tops represent the
  19. the Role of the manager on communications
    consists in serving as the central link in the monitoring system over communications in the organisation, i.e. not most to be kommunikatorom, and to become the manager or the chief training others to process of communications. The principle of intermediary underlying management by communications, assumes, that situations in which such worker acts as kommunikator, are limited enough. Is much more
  20. Development cycles of effective communications
    it is necessary for Figure of the market to understand how communications operate. This process includes nine making elements, shown on model in fig. 74. The two first element - the basic participants of communications, i.e. the sender and the addressee. Two following - the basic tools of communications, i.e. the reference and means of distribution of the information. Four elements are the basic
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