INFORMATION
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L. G.Svitich. JOURNALISM SOCIOLOGY. The manual. Moscow. An international law institution and economy of a name of A.S.Griboedov, 2005

the Basic characteristics of an information society

- formation of a uniform world information field and deepening of processes information and economic integration of the countries and the people;
- Distribution of global information networks, availability of the information;
- Possibility to receive any information for use in different spheres of a life;
- Information use as economic resource and subject of mass consumption;
- Prevalence among products of social activity of manufacture and information distribution, creation and intensive growth of the information market, prevalence of information kinds of work;
- Prevalence of remote communications, remote communications;
- New possibilities for interaction and public opinion expression;
- Formation of new models and norms of behaviour on a basis informmodelej;
- Increase of a role of a telecommunication, transport, organizational infrastructure;
- Possibility of practically full satisfaction of information requirements of people irrespective of a place of their residence, an occupation, etc.
Theories of an information society communicate today first of all with technological breaks and global networks, information superhighways. However the information society is while prospect not only because technologically information communication is still unattainable for everything but also because the term «an information society» is much more multiple-valued and is deep, than the concept about a planet entangled by modern communication media is simple. It is society type in which the information again becomes supersignificant, comes back to the initial intrinsic, valuable senses, again becomes creative, creating, instead of destroying force.
M.Kastels has very precisely and figuratively told about it: «the Promise of an information epoch is clearing of unprecedented possibility of force of reason. I think – hence, I make. Dream of Education – that the reason and a science will solve mankind problems within reach. However there is an extraordinary rupture between our technological redevelopment and our social underdevelopment (my allocation – L. S). Ours the economy, a society and culture are constructed on interests, values, institutes and systems of representations which in general limit collective kreativnost, will confiscate fruits of information technology and reject our energy in a channel of self-destroying confrontation» *.
In connection with the analysed theories of an information society it is important to define a journalism role during an epoch of the global information. It becomes more and more universal and vsepronikajushchej, multifunctional, superoperative, interactive, self-regulated, sinteznoj and dual, combining different tendencies (shablonizatsiju and kreatizm, massovizatsiju and demassovizatsiju, mass бульваризацию and elitarizm, etc.), tsennostno raznostilnoj – in a word, sinteznoj. Especially it concerns electronic means of distribution of the information, to global networks.
Freda S. Siberta's widely known work, Uilbura SHramma and Teodora Pitersona «Four theories of the press» (1956) characterises the basic theories of mass-media – authoritative, libertarianskuju, the theory of social responsibility and the Soviet totalitarian theory which can be reduced to two – totalitarian and democratic. We will result with little changes the table in which authors give the description of the named theories ** (tab. 3).
Table 3
Four theories of the press
The basic characteristics the Authoritative theory the Libertariansky theory the Theory of social responsibility Soviet
The totalitarian theory
Place of occurrence and development England ХVI and ХVII centuries: was widespread; it is applied till now it is accepted in England after 1688 and in the USA; it is influential everywhere the USA, HH century Soviet Union (some elements practised nazis and Italians many countries)


Theoretical bases philosophy of the absolute power of the monarch, its government or Milton, Lock's both works, Millja and the general theory of rationalism and the natural rights of work Hokinga, the commissions on freedom of the press and practising journalists, ethical codes of mass media the Marksistsko-leninsko-Stalin doctrine with Gegel's impurity and Russian philosophy ХIХ century
The overall objective to support and pursue a policy of the operating government and to serve the state to inform, entertain and sell, but basically to help to find true and to supervise the government to inform, entertain and sell, but basically to translate conflicts on discussion level to promote success and maintenance of the Soviet socialist system, in particular party dictatorships
Who has the right to use mass media? Everyone who receives the royal patent or the similar permission everyone who has means for it everyone to whom the subject and checked up party members are what to tell
Who is supervised by means of a mass in-formation? The governmental patents, guilds, licensing, sometimes censorship by means of «returning process to true» in «the summary market of ideas» and in courts public opinion, actions of consumers, a professional etiquette supervision and economic or political actions of the government
What is forbidden? Criticism of the political car and officials slander, obscenity, indecent behaviour, antigovernmental propagation in a wartime serious vmesha-telstvo in sphere of the rights of the person and the vital public interests of the critic of problems of party that does not extend on party practice
Property kind private or public basically private private, if only the government is not compelled to take in hand to provide public interests the public
Essential differences from other theories the tool of carrying out of a policy of the government though and it is not obligatory in the property of the last the tool of the control over the government and satisfaction of other needs of a society of a news media should become socially the answer-stvennymi, in opposite slu-tea someone of dales-wives to force them to be those of a news media belong to the state, rigidly it are supervised and are its tool
Followed notice, that at an estimation of the fourth theory obviously there is an excessive ideological component.
The theory of social responsibility (Social responsibility theory) is now rather popular because more and more considerable role of mass-media on a society though exist along with it and theories of the minimum influence on a society – a positivistic sight at mutual relations of mass-media and an audience began to be realised. The scheme resulted above, is created half a century ago and though it keeps till now the value, it is logical to name more modern theories. We will result a report of these theories (tab. 4) closely connected with a today's stage of development information общества*.
Table 4
Mass communication theories
The theory name the Basic ideas
The theory of "the third wave»
«Third Wave» theory Three waves of a civilisation: agrarian (to ХVШ century), industrial (till 1955), postindustrial when the leading part is played by means of kommunikatsionno-computer influence for a society (Toffler O.Tretja a wave, 1980).
The openness and closeness theory
Theory of opening and closing Exist closed and open closed ethnic or religious komjuniti (co-operating a generality). Closed with watchfulness concern the new information and communications. Opened easily perceive the new information, are fraught with information overloads the Ideal – equation of these processes (Klapp M. Opening and Closing. Strategies of Information Adaptation in Society, 1978).
The theory of social expectations
Theory of social expectations the Main attention – to educational functions of mass-media, process of formation of a mass audience.
The self-reproduction theory
Theory autopoiesis the Society – samoorganizujushchajasja the system which subsystems have own information communications with environment.
The free press theory
Free press theory the Beret under protection of the right of citizens on a freedom of speech which guarantor is the private property on a news media. The expression has received in the First amendment to the Constitution of the USA.
The theory of "stereotypic capsules»
Conventional capsules Mass media can extend the standardised imaginary representations about a life and culture, forming from them models of behaviour, values, social possibilities. Ananbergsky school at the Pensilvansky university, created in 1959
The theory of curling of materials of the press, the agenda theory
Agenda-setting theory of the press the Most part of news in an American press has zaprogrammirovanno-selective character as the agenda, that is themes and the problems offered the reader, are exposed to the careful filter and are distributed according to importance degree in mass-media.


The status quo theory
Status quo theory the Primacy konformistskoj functions of mass-media which impart audiences the inert relation to usages existing in a society. The American sociologists P.Lazarsfeld and R.Merton (the Mass communication, 1966) considered, that mass-media in the USA act in a role of "a social drug» which promotes decrease in aesthetic tastes and status-kvo strengthening.
The theory of a selective exposition
Selective exposure the account of socially-demographic, cultural and psychological factors of influence of mass-media on an audience, research of forms and results of influence of mass-media on various groups of an audience Is important. (The theory was generated in the USA in 40th of the last century). It is opposite to the theory of "a magic bullet».)
The theory of finding of advantage and pleasure
Uses and gratification theory it is not necessary to represent the Audience as obedient weight of weak-willed consumers of any information as it consists of set of individuals which have the interests, tastes and consequently consumes the information according to them. (It is close to the theory of selective influences.)
The theory of a magic bullet
Magic bullet theory the Cinema, mass-media have magic influence on an audience. (Sootnosima with the injection theory. The USA, beginning HH century)
The injection theory
Hypodermic needle theory Confirms direct influence of mass-media on an audience, ignoring its age, cultural, geographical and other features (It is denied by modern researchers.)
The theory of "a melting copper» («melting tiglja»)
Melting pot theory the American nation was generated by a meltdown in a single whole of national-cultural traditions of immigrants though recently there was a theory of "salad" pluralism of ethnic cultures (salat bowl theory), but the "meltdown" theory is realised in mass culture models.
The theory of the least unacceptability of programs
Least objectionalble program theory Stability of quantity of spectators depends not so much on quality of television programs, how many from inertia of heavy spectators which sit at screens on neskolku hours, look all successively and appear under the influence of the basic stream "mejstriminga", their actions speak not interest to the maintenance of transfers, and inertia of adjustment.
The paradox theory
Paradox: globalisation creates localisation Globalization generates localisation. (The theory helps to establish the reasons of deepening of contradictions between tendencies to transnationalism in development of the newest information technologies and aspiration to subordinate to mass media interests of local communities and subcultures; researches show, that excessive globalisation prevents to receive data interesting an audience on the lokale).
The theory of two-gradualness of an information stream
Two step flow of communication theory At the first step the information from mass-media is fixed in opinions of competent leaders of opinions respected in a society, and then at the second step passes from them to other consumers. Authors of the theory are P.Lazarsfeld and B.Berelson (1940). In the newest researches it has received the name of the theory of diffusion.
The diffusion theory
Theory of diffusion Calls for careful studying of ways and forms of influence of mass-media on a mass audience taking into account two-gradualness of an information stream, a role of leaders of opinions and other factors which can define specificity of processes of distribution and information mastering in a society.


Theories
Media effects
Theories of media effects Influence of mass-media on all spheres of a personal and public life of modern mankind mnogomerno. In dotelevizionnyj the period and in 1930-1940 the basic attention was given to propaganda effects, later became more active bihevioristskie supervision at the analysis of attention of mass media on individual and collective consciousness. The recognition was received by principles of Ananbergsky school at Pensilvansky university which have been directed against kommertsializatsii mass-media and against attempts to give to their activity spontaneous character. Recently communications theories as cultural ecology are extended.
The development theory, or the theory for the media developing countries
Development media theory It is necessary to provide preservation of national cultural traditions and a full freedom in choosing in sphere of communications without its infringement in underdeveloped countries. (It is formulated under the influence of struggle for the New information order in the materials of commission Makbrajda reflecting specificity of difficult conditions for development of a communication facility in the countries of "the third world» where the industrial base is poorly developed, there is a sharp struggle between tendencies to globalisation of communication systems and problems of preservation of national, cultural traditions and values. These contradictions pour out in the oppositional relation to information imperialism and suppose state ideological the control in interests of the national sovereignty of cultures and, accordingly, mass-media.)
The theory of communications in the XXI-st century
Communication Theory in the 21 Сentury Versatile researches of possibilities and consequences of influence of new communication technologies on a society, culture and destinies of journalism.

We name ancestors of research of the mass information, a mass communication (MK), not analyzing in detail their ideas because basically it is a subject of sociology of a mass communication. However here at least it is fluently necessary to get acquainted with these known sociologists and their works who are connected with МК*.
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