the Basic characteristics of an information society
- formation of a uniform world information field and deepening of processes information and economic integration of the countries and the people;
- Distribution of global information networks, availability of the information;
- Possibility to receive any information for use in different spheres of a life;
- Information use as economic resource and subject of mass consumption;
- Prevalence among products of social activity of manufacture and information distribution, creation and intensive growth of the information market, prevalence of information kinds of work;
- Prevalence of remote communications, remote communications;
- New possibilities for interaction and public opinion expression;
- Formation of new models and norms of behaviour on a basis informmodelej;
- Increase of a role of a telecommunication, transport, organizational infrastructure;
- Possibility of practically full satisfaction of information requirements of people irrespective of a place of their residence, an occupation, etc.
Theories of an information society communicate today first of all with technological breaks and global networks, information superhighways. However the information society is while prospect not only because technologically information communication is still unattainable for everything but also because the term Ā«an information societyĀ» is much more multiple-valued and is deep, than the concept about a planet entangled by modern communication media is simple. It is society type in which the information again becomes supersignificant, comes back to the initial intrinsic, valuable senses, again becomes creative, creating, instead of destroying force.
M.Kastels has very precisely and figuratively told about it: Ā«the Promise of an information epoch is clearing of unprecedented possibility of force of reason. I think ā hence, I make. Dream of Education ā that the reason and a science will solve mankind problems within reach. However there is an extraordinary rupture between our technological redevelopment and our social underdevelopment (my allocation ā L. S). Ours the economy, a society and culture are constructed on interests, values, institutes and systems of representations which in general limit collective kreativnost, will confiscate fruits of information technology and reject our energy in a channel of self-destroying confrontationĀ» *.
In connection with the analysed theories of an information society it is important to define a journalism role during an epoch of the global information. It becomes more and more universal and vsepronikajushchej, multifunctional, superoperative, interactive, self-regulated, sinteznoj and dual, combining different tendencies (shablonizatsiju and kreatizm, massovizatsiju and demassovizatsiju, mass Š±ŃŠ»ŃŠ²Š°ŃŠøŠ·Š°ŃŠøŃ and elitarizm, etc.), tsennostno raznostilnoj ā in a word, sinteznoj. Especially it concerns electronic means of distribution of the information, to global networks.
Freda S. Siberta's widely known work, Uilbura SHramma and Teodora Pitersona Ā«Four theories of the pressĀ» (1956) characterises the basic theories of mass-media ā authoritative, libertarianskuju, the theory of social responsibility and the Soviet totalitarian theory which can be reduced to two ā totalitarian and democratic. We will result with little changes the table in which authors give the description of the named theories ** (tab. 3).
Four theories of the press
The basic characteristics the Authoritative theory the Libertariansky theory the Theory of social responsibility Soviet
The totalitarian theory
Place of occurrence and development England Š„VI and Š„VII centuries: was widespread; it is applied till now it is accepted in England after 1688 and in the USA; it is influential everywhere the USA, HH century Soviet Union (some elements practised nazis and Italians many countries)
Theoretical bases philosophy of the absolute power of the monarch, its government or Milton, Lock's both works, Millja and the general theory of rationalism and the natural rights of work Hokinga, the commissions on freedom of the press and practising journalists, ethical codes of mass media the Marksistsko-leninsko-Stalin doctrine with Gegel's impurity and Russian philosophy Š„IŠ„ century
The overall objective to support and pursue a policy of the operating government and to serve the state to inform, entertain and sell, but basically to help to find true and to supervise the government to inform, entertain and sell, but basically to translate conflicts on discussion level to promote success and maintenance of the Soviet socialist system, in particular party dictatorships
Who has the right to use mass media? Everyone who receives the royal patent or the similar permission everyone who has means for it everyone to whom the subject and checked up party members are what to tell
Who is supervised by means of a mass in-formation? The governmental patents, guilds, licensing, sometimes censorship by means of Ā«returning process to trueĀ» in Ā«the summary market of ideasĀ» and in courts public opinion, actions of consumers, a professional etiquette supervision and economic or political actions of the government
What is forbidden? Criticism of the political car and officials slander, obscenity, indecent behaviour, antigovernmental propagation in a wartime serious vmesha-telstvo in sphere of the rights of the person and the vital public interests of the critic of problems of party that does not extend on party practice
Property kind private or public basically private private, if only the government is not compelled to take in hand to provide public interests the public
Essential differences from other theories the tool of carrying out of a policy of the government though and it is not obligatory in the property of the last the tool of the control over the government and satisfaction of other needs of a society of a news media should become socially the answer-stvennymi, in opposite slu-tea someone of dales-wives to force them to be those of a news media belong to the state, rigidly it are supervised and are its tool
Followed notice, that at an estimation of the fourth theory obviously there is an excessive ideological component.
The theory of social responsibility (Social responsibility theory) is now rather popular because more and more considerable role of mass-media on a society though exist along with it and theories of the minimum influence on a society ā a positivistic sight at mutual relations of mass-media and an audience began to be realised. The scheme resulted above, is created half a century ago and though it keeps till now the value, it is logical to name more modern theories. We will result a report of these theories (tab. 4) closely connected with a today's stage of development information Š¾Š±ŃŠµŃŃŠ²Š°*.
Mass communication theories
The theory name the Basic ideas
The theory of "the third waveĀ»
Ā«Third WaveĀ» theory Three waves of a civilisation: agrarian (to Š„VŠØ century), industrial (till 1955), postindustrial when the leading part is played by means of kommunikatsionno-computer influence for a society (Toffler O.Tretja a wave, 1980).
The openness and closeness theory
Theory of opening and closing Exist closed and open closed ethnic or religious komjuniti (co-operating a generality).
Closed with watchfulness concern the new information and communications. Opened easily perceive the new information, are fraught with information overloads the Ideal ā equation of these processes (Klapp M. Opening and Closing. Strategies of Information Adaptation in Society, 1978).
The theory of social expectations
Theory of social expectations the Main attention ā to educational functions of mass-media, process of formation of a mass audience.
The self-reproduction theory
Theory autopoiesis the Society ā samoorganizujushchajasja the system which subsystems have own information communications with environment.
The free press theory
Free press theory the Beret under protection of the right of citizens on a freedom of speech which guarantor is the private property on a news media. The expression has received in the First amendment to the Constitution of the USA.
The theory of "stereotypic capsulesĀ»
Conventional capsules Mass media can extend the standardised imaginary representations about a life and culture, forming from them models of behaviour, values, social possibilities. Ananbergsky school at the Pensilvansky university, created in 1959
The theory of curling of materials of the press, the agenda theory
Agenda-setting theory of the press the Most part of news in an American press has zaprogrammirovanno-selective character as the agenda, that is themes and the problems offered the reader, are exposed to the careful filter and are distributed according to importance degree in mass-media.
The status quo theory
Status quo theory the Primacy konformistskoj functions of mass-media which impart audiences the inert relation to usages existing in a society. The American sociologists P.Lazarsfeld and R.Merton (the Mass communication, 1966) considered, that mass-media in the USA act in a role of "a social drugĀ» which promotes decrease in aesthetic tastes and status-kvo strengthening.
The theory of a selective exposition
Selective exposure the account of socially-demographic, cultural and psychological factors of influence of mass-media on an audience, research of forms and results of influence of mass-media on various groups of an audience Is important. (The theory was generated in the USA in 40th of the last century). It is opposite to the theory of "a magic bulletĀ».)
The theory of finding of advantage and pleasure
Uses and gratification theory it is not necessary to represent the Audience as obedient weight of weak-willed consumers of any information as it consists of set of individuals which have the interests, tastes and consequently consumes the information according to them. (It is close to the theory of selective influences.)
The theory of a magic bullet
Magic bullet theory the Cinema, mass-media have magic influence on an audience. (Sootnosima with the injection theory. The USA, beginning HH century)
The injection theory
Hypodermic needle theory Confirms direct influence of mass-media on an audience, ignoring its age, cultural, geographical and other features (It is denied by modern researchers.)
The theory of "a melting copperĀ» (Ā«melting tigljaĀ»)
Melting pot theory the American nation was generated by a meltdown in a single whole of national-cultural traditions of immigrants though recently there was a theory of "salad" pluralism of ethnic cultures (salat bowl theory), but the "meltdown" theory is realised in mass culture models.
The theory of the least unacceptability of programs
Least objectionalble program theory Stability of quantity of spectators depends not so much on quality of television programs, how many from inertia of heavy spectators which sit at screens on neskolku hours, look all successively and appear under the influence of the basic stream "mejstriminga", their actions speak not interest to the maintenance of transfers, and inertia of adjustment.
The paradox theory
Paradox: globalisation creates localisation Globalization generates localisation. (The theory helps to establish the reasons of deepening of contradictions between tendencies to transnationalism in development of the newest information technologies and aspiration to subordinate to mass media interests of local communities and subcultures; researches show, that excessive globalisation prevents to receive data interesting an audience on the lokale).
The theory of two-gradualness of an information stream
Two step flow of communication theory At the first step the information from mass-media is fixed in opinions of competent leaders of opinions respected in a society, and then at the second step passes from them to other consumers. Authors of the theory are P.Lazarsfeld and B.Berelson (1940). In the newest researches it has received the name of the theory of diffusion.
The diffusion theory
Theory of diffusion Calls for careful studying of ways and forms of influence of mass-media on a mass audience taking into account two-gradualness of an information stream, a role of leaders of opinions and other factors which can define specificity of processes of distribution and information mastering in a society.
Theories of media effects Influence of mass-media on all spheres of a personal and public life of modern mankind mnogomerno. In dotelevizionnyj the period and in 1930-1940 the basic attention was given to propaganda effects, later became more active bihevioristskie supervision at the analysis of attention of mass media on individual and collective consciousness. The recognition was received by principles of Ananbergsky school at Pensilvansky university which have been directed against kommertsializatsii mass-media and against attempts to give to their activity spontaneous character. Recently communications theories as cultural ecology are extended.
The development theory, or the theory for the media developing countries
Development media theory It is necessary to provide preservation of national cultural traditions and a full freedom in choosing in sphere of communications without its infringement in underdeveloped countries. (It is formulated under the influence of struggle for the New information order in the materials of commission Makbrajda reflecting specificity of difficult conditions for development of a communication facility in the countries of "the third worldĀ» where the industrial base is poorly developed, there is a sharp struggle between tendencies to globalisation of communication systems and problems of preservation of national, cultural traditions and values. These contradictions pour out in the oppositional relation to information imperialism and suppose state ideological the control in interests of the national sovereignty of cultures and, accordingly, mass-media.)
The theory of communications in the XXI-st century
Communication Theory in the 21 Š”entury Versatile researches of possibilities and consequences of influence of new communication technologies on a society, culture and destinies of journalism.
We name ancestors of research of the mass information, a mass communication (MK), not analyzing in detail their ideas because basically it is a subject of sociology of a mass communication. However here at least it is fluently necessary to get acquainted with these known sociologists and their works who are connected with ŠŠ*.
= Go to the contents of the textbook =
the Basic characteristics of an information society
- the General description of requirement.
having realised requirement, the buyer starts working out of the general description of requirement in which, the basic characteristics and necessary quantity of the demanded goods are indicated. For the standard goods this process is simple enough. However for definition of characteristics of difficult items to the buyer the help of engineers, advisers or end users of these items can be
- 4.1. Information technology as scientific discipline
Private criteria of efficiency of information technologies For an estimation of efficiency of various designed or already existing information technologies it is necessary to define criteria of their efficiency correctly. Such criteria concern: ā¢ the Functional criteria, which significances characterise achievement degree at the given technology of those desirable characteristics of
- Qualitative characteristics of the financial information
Correctness of accepted decisions and reliability of the conclusions received by users on the basis of accounting data, is defined by quality of the information formed within the limits of accounting system and represented in accounting (finanso-howl) the reporting. Qualitative characteristics of the information concern: Clearness; Relevance; Comparability;
- the Model of general characteristics
(common trait) assumes, that the norm of behaviour is individual (not observed obviously) the characteristic of the agent, observing for which behaviour operating body - the centre - can receive about it more and more full information and accordingly correct the representations about characteristics of that group to which posesses the agent (the assumption that the agents belonging to this or
- information Restrictions
At information formation in book keeping it is necessary to take into consideration the factors limiting relevance and reliability of this information. Allocate three major factors, the given characteristics of the information influencing restriction: Timeliness of the information; Balance between benefits and expenses; Balance between qualitative characteristics. The first factor to limit
- 9.1. The basic characteristics of a condition of system of manufacture and realisation
It is possible to assume set of characteristics on which the system of such estimation is under construction. In our opinion, in structure of the major enter: Stability; Proportionality; Profitability. Let's consider methods of calculation of these characteristics according to external accounts: forms "Balance sheet" and forms 2 "Income and expenditure
- QUESTIONS AND TASKS
What of the resulted characteristics can be excluded at once from the analysis to facilitate it? What characteristics, in your opinion, are the most actual for the given collective? 3. With allowance for the revealed importance of characteristics from printers it makes sense to them to recommend to a choice and
- Control questions and problem tasks
That such social group, what its basic characteristics? "In-group" and "miss-group": an identity problem Open the basic characteristics of the big social group Features of a class as big social group Ethnic groups and their properties Problems of mutual relations between the nations in modern Russia What features of spontaneous groups and mass movements? List the basic characteristics of
- Control questions
make definition of concept "mass communication". Name the basic theoretical directions of studying of a mass communication. Make definition of concept Ā«the mass informationĀ» and name characteristics of the mass information. Characterise mass communication structure on G.Lassuellu. What basic conditions of functioning of process of creation and transformation of the mass information exist?
are an information interchange, on which basis rukovo - dstvo receives the information necessary for acceptance of effective decisions and leads up the made decisions to workers. The basic functions of communications in the organisation are: Coordination of actions; Information distribution; Expression of feelings and the emotions quite often accompanying process of working out of the
- environment Characteristics.
M.Meskon allocates such characteristics of an environment, as complexity, mobility, uncertainty (Meskon M. H, Albert M, Hedouri with F.Osnovy of management / the Lane with English M, 1995. With. 118). Complexity of an environment is understood as variability of factors to which the organisation is obliged to react. Mobility of environment ā speed to which there are changes in an organisation
- Control questions
Result characteristics of basic elements of system of the open organisation. What itself the formal structure of communications represents to the organisations? Describe models of the communicative networks providing passage of horizontal and vertical information streams in the organisation. Describe psychological types kommunikatorov in the organisation. What basic stages of communication